Advertisement

Treatment strategies of acute myocardial infarction: updates on revascularization, pharmacological therapy, and beyond

      Highlights

      • With advances in diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction (MI) has improved.
      • However, there is still considerable room for further improvement.
      • The current review paper provides the latest evidence in the field of acute MI.

      Abstract

      Owing to recent advances in early reperfusion strategies, pharmacological therapy, standardized care, and the identification of vulnerable patient subsets, the prognosis of acute myocardial infarction has improved. However, there is still considerable room for improvement. This review article summarizes the latest evidence concerning clinical diagnosis and treatment of acute myocardial infarction.

      Graphical abstract

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Cardiology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Ozaki Y.
        • Hara H.
        • Onuma Y.
        • Katagiri Y.
        • Amano T.
        • Kobayashi Y.
        • et al.
        CVIT expert consensus document on primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) update 2022.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 1-34
        • Mefford M.T.
        • Li B.H.
        • Qian L.
        • Reading S.R.
        • Harrison T.N.
        • Scott R.D.
        • et al.
        Sex-specific trends in acute myocardial infarction within an integrated healthcare network, 2000 through 2014.
        Circulation. 2020; 141: 509-519
        • Simonsson M.
        • Wallentin L.
        • Alfredsson J.
        • Erlinge D.
        • Hellström Ängerud K.
        • Hofmann R.
        • et al.
        Temporal trends in bleeding events in acute myocardial infarction: insights from the SWEDEHEART registry.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 833-843
        • Sato K.
        • Takahashi J.
        • Hao K.
        • Miyata S.
        • Suda A.
        • Shindo T.
        • et al.
        Temporal trends in the prevalence and outcomes of geriatric patients with acute myocardial infarction in Japan-a report from the Miyagi AMI registry study.
        J Cardiol. 2020; 75: 465-472
        • Wang Y.
        • Leifheit E.C.
        • Krumholz H.M.
        Trends in 10-year outcomes among medicare beneficiaries who survived an acute myocardial infarction.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2022; 7: 613-622
        • GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators
        Global, regional, and national age–sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
        Lancet. 2015; 385: 117-171
        • Ando H.
        • Yamaji K.
        • Kohsaka S.
        • Ishii H.
        • Wada H.
        • Yamada S.
        • et al.
        Japanese Nationwide PCI (J-PCI) registry annual report 2019: patient demographics and in-hospital outcomes.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 243-247
        • Sakamoto K.
        • Sato R.
        • Tabata N.
        • Ishii M.
        • Yamashita T.
        • Nagamatsu S.
        • et al.
        Temporal trends in coronary intervention strategies and the impact on one-year clinical events: data from a japanese multi-center real-world cohort study.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 66-77
        • Lau J.
        • Antman E.M.
        • Jimenez-Silva J.
        • Kupelnick B.
        • Mosteller F.
        • Chalmers T.C.
        Cumulative meta-analysis of therapeutic trials for myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 1992; 327: 248-254
        • Grines C.L.
        • Browne K.F.
        • Marco J.
        • Rothbaum D.
        • Stone G.W.
        • O'Keefe J.
        • et al.
        A comparison of immediate angioplasty with thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. The primary angioplasty in myocardial infarction study group.
        N Engl J Med. 1993; 328: 673-679
        • Fazel R.
        • Joseph T.I.
        • Sankardas M.A.
        • Pinto D.S.
        • Yeh R.W.
        • Kumbhani D.J.
        • et al.
        Comparison of reperfusion strategies for ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: a multivariate network meta-analysis.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2020; 9e015186
        • Saito Y.
        • Kobayashi Y.
        • Fujii K.
        • Sonoda S.
        • Tsujita K.
        • Hibi K.
        • et al.
        Clinical expert consensus document on intravascular ultrasound from the japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics (2021).
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 40-51
        • Fujii K.
        • Kubo T.
        • Otake H.
        • Nakazawa G.
        • Sonoda S.
        • Hibi K.
        • et al.
        Expert consensus statement for quantitative measurement and morphological assessment of optical coherence tomography: update 2022.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 248-254
        • Kurogi K.
        • Ishii M.
        • Yamamoto N.
        • Yamanaga K.
        • Tsujita K.
        Optical coherence tomography-guided percutaneous coronary intervention: a review of current clinical applications.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2021; 36: 169-177
        • Saito Y.
        • Kobayashi Y.
        Contemporary coronary drug-eluting and coated stents: a mini-review.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2021; 36: 20-22
        • Kuramitsu S.
        • Sonoda S.
        • Ando K.
        • Otake H.
        • Natsuaki M.
        • Anai R.
        • et al.
        Drug-eluting stent thrombosis: current and future perspectives.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2021; 36: 158-168
        • Kawamura A.
        • Egami Y.
        • Kawanami S.
        • Sugae H.
        • Ukita K.
        • Nakamura H.
        • et al.
        Preferable vascular healing of ultrathin strut biodegradable-polymer sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with acute coronary syndrome.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12928-022-00842-6
        • Matsuhiro Y.
        • Egami Y.
        • Okamoto N.
        • Kusuda M.
        • Sakio T.
        • Nohara H.
        • et al.
        Early vascular healing of ultra-thin strut polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stents in acute coronary syndrome: USUI-ACS study.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12928-022-00862-2
        • Itoh T.
        • Otake H.
        • Kimura T.
        • Tsukiyama Y.
        • Kikuchi T.
        • Okubo M.
        • et al.
        A serial optical frequency-domain imaging study of early and late vascular responses to bioresorbable-polymer sirolimus-eluting stents for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction and stable coronary artery disease patients: results of the MECHANISM-ULTIMASTER study.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 281-292
        • Ibanez B.
        • James S.
        • Agewall S.
        • Antunes M.J.
        • Bucciarelli-Ducci C.
        • Bueno H.
        • et al.
        2017 ESC guidelines for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation: the task force for the management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with ST-segment elevation of the european Society of Cardiology (ESC).
        Eur Heart J. 2018; 39: 119-177
        • Ikari Y.
        • Yamada S.
        • Ehara N.
        • Kozuma K.
        • Shinke T.
        • Sugano T.
        • et al.
        The japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics position statement on coronary invasive procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2021; 36: 139-144
        • Kobayashi S.
        • Sakakura K.
        • Jinnouchi H.
        • Taniguchi Y.
        • Tsukui T.
        • Watanabe Y.
        • et al.
        Comparison of door-to-balloon time and in-hospital outcomes in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction between before versus after COVID-19 pandemic.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12928-022-00836-4
        • Pu J.
        • Ding S.
        • Ge H.
        • Han Y.
        • Guo J.
        • Lin R.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of a pharmaco-invasive strategy with half-dose alteplase versus primary angioplasty in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: EARLY-MYO trial (Early routine catheterization after alteplase fibrinolysis versus primary PCI in acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial Infarction).
        Circulation. 2017; 136: 1462-1473
        • Bainey K.R.
        • Armstrong P.W.
        • Zheng Y.
        • Brass N.
        • Tyrrell B.D.
        • Leung R.
        • et al.
        Pharmacoinvasive strategy versus primary percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in clinical practice: insights from the vital heart response registry.
        Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2019; 12e008059
        • Danchin N.
        • Popovic B.
        • Puymirat E.
        • Goldstein P.
        • Belle L.
        • Cayla G.
        • et al.
        Five-year outcomes following timely primary percutaneous intervention, late primary percutaneous intervention, or a pharmaco-invasive strategy in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the FAST-MI programme.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 858-866
        • Thrane P.G.
        • Kristensen S.D.
        • Olesen K.K.W.
        • Mortensen L.S.
        • Bøtker H.E.
        • Thuesen L.
        • et al.
        16-year follow-up of the danish acute myocardial infarction 2 (DANAMI-2) trial: primary percutaneous coronary intervention vs. Fibrinolysis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 847-854
        • Watanabe Y.
        • Sakakura K.
        • Taniguchi Y.
        • Yamamoto K.
        • Seguchi M.
        • Tsukui T.
        • et al.
        Long-term outcomes of the modest stent expansion strategy for the culprit lesion of acute myocardial infarction.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12928-022-00841-7
        • Malmberg M.
        • Gunn J.
        • Rautava P.
        • Sipila J.
        • Kyto V.
        Outcome of acute myocardial infarction versus stable coronary artery disease patients treated with coronary bypass surgery.
        Ann Med. 2021; 53: 70-77
        • Weigel F.
        • Nudy M.
        • Krakowski G.
        • Ahmed M.
        • Foy A.
        Meta-analysis of nonrandomized studies to assess the optimal timing of coronary artery bypass grafting after acute myocardial infarction.
        Am J Cardiol. 2022; 164: 44-51
        • Thielmann M.
        • Wendt D.
        • Slottosch I.
        • Welp H.
        • Schiller W.
        • Tsagakis K.
        • et al.
        Coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients with acute coronary syndromes after primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a current report from the North-Rhine Westphalia surgical myocardial infarction registry.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2021; 10e021182
        • Bianco V.
        • Kilic A.
        • Gleason T.G.
        • Aranda-Michel E.
        • Wang Y.
        • Navid F.
        • et al.
        Timing of coronary artery bypass grafting after acute myocardial infarction may not influence mortality and readmissions.
        J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021; 161: 2056-2064
        • Elbadawi A.
        • Elzeneini M.
        • Elgendy I.Y.
        • Megaly M.
        • Omer M.
        • Jimenez E.
        • et al.
        Coronary artery bypass grafting after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction.
        J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.03.081
        • Nakano S.
        • Kohsaka S.
        • Chikamori T.
        • Fukushima K.
        • Kobayashi Y.
        • Kozuma K.
        • et al.
        JCS 2022 guideline focused update on diagnosis and treatment in patients with stable coronary artery disease.
        Circ J. 2022; 86: 882-915
        • Saito Y.
        • Nishi T.
        • Saito K.
        • Kitahara H.
        • Kawase Y.
        • Matsuo H.
        • et al.
        Clinical implications and debates on the ISCHEMIA trial.
        Cardiol Rev. 2021; https://doi.org/10.1097/CRD.0000000000000389
        • Maron D.J.
        • Hochman J.S.
        • Reynolds H.R.
        • Bangalore S.
        • O'Brien S.M.
        • Boden W.E.
        • et al.
        Initial invasive or conservative strategy for stable coronary disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2020; 382: 1395-1407
        • Chacko L.
        • Howard J.P.
        • Rajkumar C.
        • Nowbar A.N.
        • Kane C.
        • Mahdi D.
        Effects of percutaneous coronary intervention on death and myocardial infarction stratified by stable and unstable coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
        Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2020; 13e006363
        • Saito Y.
        • Kobayashi Y.
        Percutaneous coronary intervention strategies in patients with acute myocardial infarction and multivessel disease: completeness, timing, lesion assessment, and patient status.
        J Cardiol. 2019; 74: 95-101
        • Mehta S.R.
        • Wood D.A.
        • Storey R.F.
        • Mehran R.
        • Bainey K.R.
        • Nguyen H.
        • et al.
        Complete revascularization with multivessel PCI for myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 1411-1421
        • Ahmad Y.
        • Howard J.P.
        • Arnold A.
        • Prasad M.
        • Seligman H.
        • Cook C.M.
        • et al.
        Complete revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention for patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction and multivessel coronary artery disease: an updated meta-analysis of randomized trials.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2020; 9e015263
        • Bainey K.R.
        • Engstrom T.
        • Smits P.C.
        • Gershlick A.H.
        • James S.K.
        • Storey R.F.
        • et al.
        Complete vs culprit-lesion-only revascularization for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2020; 5: 881-888
        • Wood D.A.
        • Cairns J.A.
        • Wang J.
        • Mehran R.
        • Storey R.F.
        • Nguyen H.
        • et al.
        Timing of staged nonculprit artery revascularization in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: COMPLETE trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019; 74: 2713-2723
        • Pinilla-Echeverri N.
        • Mehta S.R.
        • Wang J.
        • Lavi S.
        • Schampaert E.
        • Cantor W.J.
        • et al.
        Nonculprit lesion plaque morphology in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction: results from the COMPLETE trial optical coherence tomography substudys.
        Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2020; 13e008768
        • Sheth T.
        • Pinilla-Echeverri N.
        • Moreno R.
        • Wang J.
        • Wood D.A.
        • Storey R.F.
        • et al.
        Nonculprit lesion severity and outcome of revascularization in patients with STEMI and multivessel coronary disease.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 76: 1277-1286
        • Wald D.S.
        • Hadyanto S.
        • Bestwick J.P.
        Should fractional flow reserve follow angiographic visual inspection to guide preventive percutaneous coronary intervention in ST-elevation myocardial infarction?.
        Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes. 2020; 6: 186-192
        • Puymirat E.
        • Cayla G.
        • Simon T.
        • Steg P.G.
        • Montalescot G.
        • Durand-Zaleski I.
        • et al.
        Multivessel PCI guided by FFR or angiography for myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 2021; 385: 297-308
        • Elbadawi A.
        • Dang A.T.
        • Hamed M.
        • Eid M.
        • Prakash Hiriyur Prakash M.
        • Saleh M.
        • et al.
        FFR- versus angiography-guided revascularization for nonculprit stenosis in STEMI and multivessel disease: a network meta-analysis.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2022; 15: 656-666
        • Lawton J.S.
        • Tamis-Holland J.E.
        • Bangalore S.
        • Bates E.R.
        • Beckie T.M.
        • Bischoff J.M.
        • et al.
        ACC/AHA/SCAI guideline for coronary artery revascularization: executive summary: a report of the american College of Cardiology/American Heart Association joint committee on clinical practice guidelines.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022; 79: 197-215
        • Secemsky E.A.
        • Butala N.
        • Raja A.
        • Khera R.
        • Wang Y.
        • Curtis J.P.
        • et al.
        Temporal changes and institutional variation in use of percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation myocardial infarction with multivessel coronary artery disease in the United States: an NCDR research to practice project.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2021; 6: 574-580
        • Bainey K.R.
        • Alemayehu W.
        • Armstrong P.W.
        • Westerhout C.M.
        • Kaul P.
        • Welsh R.C.
        Long-term outcomes of complete revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2020; 13: 1557-1567
        • Kim M.C.
        • Hyun J.Y.
        • Ahn Y.
        • Bae S.
        • Hyun D.Y.
        • Cho K.H.
        • et al.
        Optimal revascularization strategy in non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction with multivessel coronary artery disease: culprit-only versus one-stage versus multistage revascularization.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2020; 9e016575
        • Darmoch F.
        • Alraies M.C.
        • Al-Khadra Y.
        • Moussa Pacha H.
        • Pinto D.S.
        • Osborn E.A.
        Intravascular ultrasound imaging-guided versus coronary angiography-guided percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2020; 9e013678
        • Yamashita T.
        • Sakamoto K.
        • Tabata N.
        • Ishii M.
        • Sato R.
        • Nagamatsu S.
        • et al.
        Imaging-guided PCI for event suppression in japanese acute coronary syndrome patients: community-based observational cohort registry.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2021; 36: 81-90
        • Johnson T.W.
        • Raber L.
        • di Mario C.
        • Bourantas C.
        • Jia H.
        • Mattesini A.
        • et al.
        Clinical use of intracoronary imaging. Part 2: acute coronary syndromes, ambiguous coronary angiography findings, and guiding interventional decision-making: an expert consensus document of the european Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions.
        Eur Heart J. 2019; 40: 2566-2584
        • Sugiyama T.
        • Yamamoto E.
        • Bryniarski K.
        • Xing L.
        • Lee H.
        • Isobe M.
        • et al.
        Nonculprit plaque characteristics in patients with acute coronary syndrome caused by plaque erosion vs plaque rupture: a 3-vessel optical coherence tomography study.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2018; 3: 207-214
        • Seegers L.M.
        • Araki M.
        • Nakajima A.
        • Yonetsu T.
        • Minami Y.
        • Ako J.
        • et al.
        Sex differences in culprit plaque characteristics among different age groups in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
        Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2022; 15e011612
        • Jia H.
        • Dai J.
        • Hou J.
        • Xing L.
        • Ma L.
        • Liu H.
        • et al.
        Effective anti-thrombotic therapy without stenting: intravascular optical coherence tomography-based management in plaque erosion (the EROSION study).
        Eur Heart J. 2017; 38: 792-800
        • Jia H.
        • Dai J.
        • He L.
        • Xu Y.
        • Shi Y.
        • Zhao L.
        • et al.
        EROSION III: a multicenter RCT of OCT-guided reperfusion in STEMI with early infarct artery patency.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2022; 15: 846-856
        • Madsen J.M.
        • Kelbæk H.
        • Nepper-Christensen L.
        • Jacobsen M.R.
        • Ahtarovski K.A.
        • Høfsten D.E.
        • et al.
        Clinical outcomes of no stenting in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing deferred primary percutaneous coronary intervention.
        EuroIntervention. 2022; https://doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-21-00950
        • Dai J.
        • Lyu S.Z.
        • Chen Y.D.
        • Song X.T.
        • Zhang M.
        • Li W.M.
        • et al.
        Stenting versus non-stenting treatment of intermediate stenosis culprit lesion in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a multicenter randomized clinical trial.
        J Geriatr Cardiol. 2017; 14: 108-117
        • Terada K.
        • Kubo T.
        • Kameyama T.
        • Matsuo Y.
        • Ino Y.
        • Emori H.
        • et al.
        NIRS-IVUS for differentiating coronary plaque rupture, erosion, and calcified nodule in acute myocardial infarction.
        JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021; 14: 1440-1450
        • Kawase Y.
        • Matsuo H.
        • Kuramitsu S.
        • Shiono Y.
        • Akasaka T.
        • Tanaka N.
        • et al.
        Clinical use of physiological lesion assessment using pressure guidewires: an expert consensus document of the japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and therapeutics-update 2022.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 425-439
        • van der Hoeven N.W.
        • Janssens G.N.
        • de Waard G.A.
        • Everaars H.
        • Broyd C.J.
        • Beijnink C.W.H.
        • et al.
        Temporal changes in coronary hyperemic and resting hemodynamic indices in nonculprit vessels of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2019; 4: 736-744
        • Kite T.A.
        • Kurmani S.A.
        • Bountziouka V.
        • Cooper N.J.
        • Lock S.T.
        • Gale C.P.
        • et al.
        Timing of invasive strategy in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
        Eur Heart J. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehac213
        • Cha J.J.
        • Bae S.
        • Park D.W.
        • Park J.H.
        • Hong S.J.
        • Park S.M.
        • et al.
        Clinical outcomes in patients with delayed hospitalization for non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022; 79: 311-323
        • Cho K.H.
        • Han X.
        • Ahn J.H.
        • Hyun D.Y.
        • Kim M.C.
        • Sim D.S.
        • et al.
        Long-term outcomes of patients with late presentation of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021; 77: 1859-1870
        • Nepper-Christensen L.
        • Lonborg J.
        • Hofsten D.E.
        • Ahtarovski K.A.
        • Bang L.E.
        • Helqvist S.
        • et al.
        Benefit from reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention beyond 12 hours of symptom duration in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction.
        Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2018; 11e006842
        • Bouisset F.
        • Gerbaud E.
        • Bataille V.
        • Coste P.
        • Puymirat E.
        • Belle L.
        • et al.
        Percutaneous myocardial revascularization in late-presenting patients with STEMI.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021; 78: 1291-1305
        • Rathod K.S.
        • Comer K.
        • Casey-Gillman O.
        • Moore L.
        • Mills G.
        • Ferguson G.
        • et al.
        Early hospital discharge following PCI for patients with STEMI.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021; 78: 2550-2560
        • Sato T.
        • Saito Y.
        • Matsumoto T.
        • Yamashita D.
        • Saito K.
        • Wakabayashi S.
        • et al.
        Impact of CADILLAC and GRACE risk scores on short- and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
        J Cardiol. 2021; 78: 201-205
        • Sato T.
        • Saito Y.
        • Matsumoto T.
        • Yamashita D.
        • Saito K.
        • Wakabayashi S.
        • et al.
        In-hospital adverse events in low-risk patients with acute myocardial infarction - potential implications for earlier discharge.
        J Cardiol. 2022; 79: 747-751
        • Tromp J.
        • Ouwerkerk W.
        • Cleland J.G.F.
        • Angermann C.E.
        • Dahlstrom U.
        • Tiew-Hwa Teng K.
        • et al.
        Global differences in burden and treatment of ischemic heart disease in acute heart failure: REPORT-HF.
        JACC Heart Fail. 2021; 9: 349-359
        • Collet J.P.
        • Thiele H.
        • Barbato E.
        • Barthélémy O.
        • Bauersachs J.
        • Bhatt D.L.
        • et al.
        2020 ESC guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation.
        Eur Heart J. 2021; 42: 1289-1367
        • Pfeffer M.A.
        • Claggett B.
        • Lewis E.F.
        • Granger C.B.
        • Køber L.
        • Maggioni A.P.
        • et al.
        Angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibition in acute myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 2021; 385: 1845-1855
        • Frantz S.
        • Hundertmark M.J.
        • Schulz-Menger J.
        • Bengel F.M.
        • Bauersachs J.
        Left ventricular remodelling post-myocardial infarction: pathophysiology, imaging, and novel therapies.
        Eur Heart J. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehac223
        • Pfeffer M.A.
        • Claggett B.
        • Lewis E.F.
        • Granger C.B.
        • Køber L.
        • Maggioni A.P.
        • et al.
        Impact of sacubitril/valsartan versus ramipril on total heart failure events in the PARADISE-MI trial.
        Circulation. 2022; 145: 87-89
        • Pitt B.
        • Ferreira J.P.
        • Zannad F.
        Why are mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists the Cinderella in evidence-based treatment of myocardial infarction complicated with heart failure? Lessons from PARADISE-MI.
        Eur. Heart J. 2022; 43: 1428-1431
        • Puymirat E.
        • Riant E.
        • Aissaoui N.
        • Soria A.
        • Ducrocq G.
        • Coste P.
        • et al.
        Beta blockers and mortality after myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure: multicentre prospective cohort study.
        BMJ. 2016; 354i4801
        • Dondo T.B.
        • Hall M.
        • West R.M.
        • Jernberg T.
        • Lindahl B.
        • Bueno H.
        • et al.
        Beta-blockers and mortality after acute myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure or ventricular dysfunction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017; 69: 2710-2720
        • Kim J.
        • Kang D.
        • Park H.
        • Kang M.
        • Park T.K.
        • Lee J.M.
        • et al.
        Long-term beta-blocker therapy and clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure: nationwide cohort study.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 3521-3529
        • Baigent C.
        • Blackwell L.
        • Emberson J.
        • Holland L.E.
        • Reith C.
        • Bhala N.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of more intensive lowering of LDL cholesterol: a meta-analysis of data from 170 000 participants in 26 randomised trials.
        Lancet. 2010; 376: 1670-1681
        • Cannon C.P.
        • Blazing M.A.
        • Giugliano R.P.
        • McCagg A.
        • White J.A.
        • Theroux P.
        • et al.
        Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes.
        N Engl J Med. 2015; 372: 2387-2397
        • Schwartz G.G.
        • Steg P.G.
        • Szarek M.
        • Bhatt D.L.
        • Bittner V.A.
        • Diaz R.
        • et al.
        Alirocumab and cardiovascular outcomes after acute coronary syndrome.
        N Engl J Med. 2018; 379: 2097-2107
        • Raber L.
        • Ueki Y.
        • Otsuka T.
        • Losdat S.
        • Häner J.D.
        • Lonborg J.
        • et al.
        Effect of alirocumab added to high-intensity statin therapy on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction: the PACMAN-AMI randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA. 2022; 327: 1771-1781
        • Natsuaki M.
        • Sonoda S.
        • Yoshioka G.
        • Hongo H.
        • Kaneko T.
        • Kashiyama K.
        • et al.
        Antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention: current status and future perspectives.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 255-263
        • Yokoi H.
        • Oda E.
        • Kaneko K.
        • Matsubayashi K.
        Duration and clinical outcome of dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention: a retrospective cohort study using a medical information database from japanese hospitals.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 465-474
        • Navarese E.P.
        • Khan S.U.
        • Kolodziejczak M.
        • Kubica J.
        • Buccheri S.
        • Cannon C.P.
        • et al.
        Comparative efficacy and safety of oral P2Y12 inhibitors in acute coronary syndrome: network meta-analysis of 52 816 patients from 12 randomized trials.
        Circulation. 2020; 142: 150-160
        • Schupke S.
        • Neumann F.J.
        • Menichelli M.
        • Mayer K.
        • Bernlochner I.
        • Wöhrle J.
        • et al.
        Ticagrelor or prasugrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
        N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 1524-1534
        • Marquis-Gravel G.
        • Dalgaard F.
        • Jones A.D.
        • Lokhnygina Y.
        • James S.K.
        • Harrington R.A.
        • et al.
        Post-discharge bleeding and mortality following acute coronary syndromes with or without PCI.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 76: 162-171
        • Turgeon R.D.
        • Koshman S.L.
        • Dong Y.
        • Graham M.M.
        P2Y12 inhibitor adherence trajectories in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: prognostic implications.
        Eur Heart J. 2022; 43: 2303-2313
        • Redfors B.
        • Kirtane A.J.
        • Liu M.
        • Musikantow D.R.
        • Witzenbichler B.
        • Rinaldi M.J.
        • et al.
        Dual antiplatelet therapy discontinuation, platelet reactivity, and adverse outcomes after successful percutaneous coronary intervention.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2022; 15: 797-806
        • Watanabe H.
        • Morimoto T.
        • Ogita M.
        • Suwa S.
        • Natsuaki M.
        • Suematsu N.
        • et al.
        Influence of CYP2C19 genotypes for the effect of 1-month dual antiplatelet therapy followed by clopidogrel monotherapy relative to 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: a genetic substudy from the STOPDAPT-2.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2021; 36: 403-415
        • Kedhi E.
        • Fabris E.
        • van der Ent M.
        • Buszman P.
        • von Birgelen C.
        • Roolvink V.
        • et al.
        Six months versus 12 months dual antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (DAPT-STEMI): randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial.
        BMJ. 2018; 363k3793
        • Hahn J.Y.
        • Song Y.B.
        • Oh J.H.
        • Cho D.K.
        • Lee J.B.
        • Doh J.H.
        • et al.
        6-month versus 12-month or longer dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome (SMART-DATE): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial.
        Lancet. 2018; 391: 1274-1284
        • De Luca G.
        • Damen S.A.
        • Camaro C.
        • Benit E.
        • Verdoia M.
        • Rasoul S.
        • et al.
        Final results of the randomised evaluation of short-term dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome treated with a new-generation stent (REDUCE trial).
        EuroIntervention. 2019; 15: e990-e998
        • Kim B.K.
        • Hong S.J.
        • Cho Y.H.
        • Yun K.H.
        • Kim Y.H.
        • Suh Y.
        • et al.
        Effect of ticagrelor monotherapy vs ticagrelor with aspirin on major bleeding and cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome: the TICO randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA. 2020; 323: 2407-2416
        • Watanabe H.
        • Morimoto T.
        • Natsuaki M.
        • Yamamoto K.
        • Obayashi Y.
        • Ogita M.
        • et al.
        Comparison of clopidogrel monotherapy after 1 to 2 months of dual antiplatelet therapy with 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome: the STOPDAPT-2 ACS randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2022; 7: 407-417
        • Tomaniak M.
        • Chichareon P.
        • Onuma Y.
        • Deliargyris E.N.
        • Takahashi K.
        • Kogame N.
        • et al.
        Benefit and risks of aspirin in addition to ticagrelor in acute coronary syndromes: a post hoc analysis of the randomized GLOBAL LEADERS trial.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2019; 4: 1092-1101
        • Baber U.
        • Dangas G.
        • Angiolillo D.J.
        • Cohen D.J.
        • Sharma S.K.
        • Nicolas J.
        • et al.
        Ticagrelor alone vs. Ticagrelor plus aspirin following percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: TWILIGHT-ACS.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 3533-3545
        • Shoji S.
        • Kuno T.
        • Fujisaki T.
        • Takagi H.
        • Briasoulis A.
        • Deharo P.
        • et al.
        De-escalation of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021; 78: 763-777
        • Laudani C.
        • Greco A.
        • Occhipinti G.
        • Ingala S.
        • Calderone D.
        • Scalia L.
        • et al.
        Short duration of DAPT versus de-escalation after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2022; 15: 268-277
        • Liu P.Y.
        • Su C.H.
        • Kuo F.Y.
        • Lee W.L.
        • Wang Y.C.
        • Lin W.S.
        • et al.
        Prasugrel switching from clopidogrel after percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome in taiwanese patients: an analysis of safety and efficacy.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 269-278
        • Cuisset T.
        • Deharo P.
        • Quilici J.
        • Johnson T.W.
        • Deffarges S.
        • Bassez C.
        • et al.
        Benefit of switching dual antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome: the TOPIC (timing of platelet inhibition after acute coronary syndrome) randomized study.
        Eur Heart J. 2017; 38: 3070-3078
        • Kim H.S.
        • Kang J.
        • Hwang D.
        • Han J.K.
        • Yang H.M.
        • Kang H.J.
        • et al.
        Prasugrel-based de-escalation of dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute coronary syndrome (HOST-REDUCE-POLYTECH-ACS): an open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority randomised trial.
        Lancet. 2020; 396: 1079-1089
        • Galli M.
        • Benenati S.
        • Franchi F.
        • Rollini F.
        • Capodanno D.
        • Biondi-Zoccai G.
        • et al.
        Comparative effects of guided vs. Potent P2Y12 inhibitor therapy in acute coronary syndrome: a network meta-analysis of 61 898 patients from 15 randomized trials.
        Eur Heart J. 2022; 43: 959-967
        • Angiolillo D.J.
        • Capodanno D.
        • Danchin N.
        • Simon T.
        • Bergmeijer T.O.
        • Ten Berg J.M.
        • et al.
        Derivation, validation, and prognostic utility of a prediction rule for nonresponse to clopidogrel: the ABCD-GENE score.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2020; 13: 606-617
        • Saito Y.
        • Nishi T.
        • Wakabayashi S.
        • Ohno Y.
        • Kitahara H.
        • Ariyoshi N.
        • et al.
        Validation of the ABCD-GENE score to identify high platelet reactivity in east asian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
        Int J Cardiol. 2021; 327: 15-18
        • Saito Y.
        • Nishi T.
        • Wakabayashi S.
        • Ohno Y.
        • Kitahara H.
        • Ariyoshi N.
        • et al.
        Differential impact of clinical and genetic factors on high platelet reactivity in patients with coronary artery disease treated with clopidogrel and prasugrel.
        J Atheroscler Thromb. 2021; https://doi.org/10.5551/jat.63035
        • Saito Y.
        • Nishi T.
        • Wakabayashi S.
        • Ohno Y.
        • Kitahara H.
        • Ariyoshi N.
        • et al.
        Derivation of a novel scoring system predicting high platelet reactivity on prasugrel in patients with coronary artery disease.
        J Atheroscler Thromb. 2021; https://doi.org/10.5551/jat.63300
        • Capodanno D.
        • Angiolillo D.J.
        • Lennon R.J.
        • Goodman S.G.
        • Kim S.W.
        • O'Cochlain F.
        • et al.
        ABCD-GENE score and clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the TAILOR-PCI trial.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2022; 11e024156
        • Ridker P.M.
        • Everett B.M.
        • Thuren T.
        • MacFadyen J.G.
        • Chang W.H.
        • Ballantyne C.
        • et al.
        Antiinflammatory therapy with canakinumab for atherosclerotic disease.
        N Engl J Med. 2017; 377: 1119-1131
        • Tardif J.C.
        • Kouz S.
        • Waters D.D.
        • Bertrand O.F.
        • Diaz R.
        • Maggioni A.P.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of low-dose colchicine after myocardial infarction.
        N Engl J Med. 2019; 381: 2497-2505
        • Tong D.C.
        • Quinn S.
        • Nasis A.
        • Hiew C.
        • Roberts-Thomson P.
        • Adams H.
        • et al.
        Colchicine in patients with acute coronary syndrome: the australian COPS randomized clinical trial.
        Circulation. 2020; 142: 1890-1900
        • Tong D.C.
        • Bloom J.E.
        • Quinn S.
        • Nasis A.
        • Hiew C.
        • Roberts-Thomson P.
        • et al.
        Colchicine in patients with acute coronary syndrome: two-year follow-up of the australian COPS randomized clinical trial.
        Circulation. 2021; 144: 1584-1586
        • Broch K.
        • Anstensrud A.K.
        • Woxholt S.
        • Sharma K.
        • Tøllefsen I.M.
        • Bendz B.
        • et al.
        Randomized trial of interleukin-6 receptor inhibition in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021; 77: 1845-1855
        • Banerjee M.N.
        • Bolli R.
        • Hare J.M.
        Clinical studies of cell therapy in cardiovascular medicine: recent developments and future directions.
        Circ Res. 2018; 123: 266-287
        • Achilli F.
        • Pontone G.
        • Bassetti B.
        • Squadroni L.
        • Campodonico J.
        • Corrada E.
        • et al.
        G-CSF for extensive STEMI.
        Circ Res. 2019; 125: 295-306
        • Makkar R.R.
        • Kereiakes D.J.
        • Aguirre F.
        • Kowalchuk G.
        • Chakravarty T.
        • Malliaras K.
        • et al.
        Intracoronary ALLogeneic heart STem cells to achieve myocardial regeneration (ALLSTAR): a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 3451-3458
        • Mathur A.
        • Fernandez-Aviles F.
        • Bartunek J.
        • Belmans A.
        • Crea F.
        • Dowlut S.
        • et al.
        The effect of intracoronary infusion of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells on all-cause mortality in acute myocardial infarction: the BAMI trial.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 3702-3710
        • Bolli R.
        Cell therapy for acute myocardial infarction: requiescat in pace.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 3711-3714
        • Scholz K.H.
        • Lengenfelder B.
        • Jacobshagen C.
        • Fleischmann C.
        • Moehlis H.
        • Olbrich H.G.
        • et al.
        Long-term effects of a standardized feedback-driven quality improvement program for timely reperfusion therapy in regional STEMI care networks.
        Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2021; 10: 397-405
        • Dee F.
        • Savage L.
        • Leitch J.W.
        • Collins N.
        • Loten C.
        • Fletcher P.
        • et al.
        Management of acute coronary syndromes in patients in rural Australia: the MORACS randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2022.1188
        • Koeda Y.
        • Ishida M.
        • Sasaki K.
        • Kikuchi S.
        • Yamaya S.
        • Tsuji K.
        • et al.
        Periprocedural and 30-day outcomes of robotic-assisted percutaneous coronary intervention used in the intravascular imaging guidance.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12928-022-00864-0
        • Chow C.K.
        • Klimis H.
        • Thiagalingam A.
        • Redfern J.
        • Hillis G.S.
        • Brieger D.
        • et al.
        Text messages to improve medication adherence and secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome: the TEXTMEDS randomized clinical trial.
        Circulation. 2022; 145: 1443-1455
        • Cram P.
        • Hatfield L.A.
        • Bakx P.
        • Banerjee A.
        • Fu C.
        • Gordon M.
        • et al.
        Variation in revascularisation use and outcomes of patients in hospital with acute myocardial infarction across six high income countries: cross sectional cohort study.
        BMJ. 2022; 377e069164
        • Hao Y.
        • Zhao D.
        • Liu J.
        • Liu J.
        • Yang N.
        • Huo Y.
        • et al.
        Performance of management strategies with class I recommendations among patients hospitalized with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in China.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2022; 7: 484-491
        • Wada H.
        • Ogita M.
        • Suwa S.
        • Nakao K.
        • Ozaki Y.
        • Kimura K.
        • et al.
        Guideline adherence and long-term clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a japanese registry of acute myocardial infarction diagnosed by universal definition (J-MINUET) substudy.
        Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2020; 9: 939-947
        • Saito Y.
        • Tateishi K.
        • Kanda M.
        • Shiko Y.
        • Kawasaki Y.
        • Kobayashi Y.
        • et al.
        Volume-outcome relationships for percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction.
        J Am Heart Assoc. 2022; 11e023805
        • Noaman S.
        • Vogrin S.
        • Dinh D.
        • Lefkovits J.
        • Brennan A.L.
        • Reid C.M.
        • et al.
        Percutaneous coronary intervention volume and cardiac surgery availability effect on acute coronary syndrome-related cardiogenic shock.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2022; 15: 876-886
        • Tateishi K.
        • Nakagomi A.
        • Saito Y.
        • Kitahara H.
        • Kanda M.
        • Shiko Y.
        • et al.
        Feasibility of management of hemodynamically stable patients with acute myocardial infarction following primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the general ward settings.
        PLoS One. 2020; 15e0240364
        • Murakami T.
        • Sakakura K.
        • Jinnouchi H.
        • Taniguchi Y.
        • Tsukui T.
        • Watanabe Y.
        • et al.
        Comparison of medical resource use and total admission cost in patients with acute myocardial infarction between on-hours visit versus off-hours visit.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12928-022-00838-2
        • Murakami T.
        • Sakakura K.
        • Taniguchi Y.
        • Yamamoto K.
        • Tsukui T.
        • Seguchi M.
        • et al.
        Comparison of the cost in percutaneous coronary intervention between ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction vs. non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 293-303
        • Schiele F.
        • Aktaa S.
        • Rossello X.
        • Ahrens I.
        • Claeys M.J.
        • Collet J.P.
        • et al.
        2020 update of the quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction: a position paper of the Association for Acute Cardiovascular Care: the study group for quality indicators from the ACVC and the NSTE-ACS guideline group.
        Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2021; 10: 224-233
        • Yamashita D.
        • Saito Y.
        • Sato T.
        • Matsumoto T.
        • Saito K.
        • Wakabayashi S.
        • et al.
        Impact of PARIS and CREDO-Kyoto thrombotic and bleeding risk scores on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
        Circ J. 2022; 86: 622-629
        • Chew D.P.
        • Hyun K.
        • Morton E.
        • Horsfall M.
        • Hillis G.S.
        • Chow C.K.
        • et al.
        Objective risk assessment vs standard care for acute coronary syndromes: a randomized clinical trial.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2021; 6: 304-313
        • Saito Y.
        • Kobayashi Y.
        Academic research consortium definition of high bleeding risk in clinical practice- validation and beyond.
        Circ J. 2021; 85: 806-807
        • Tsukizawa T.
        • Fujihara M.
        Relationship between in-hospital event rates and high bleeding risk score in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 490-496
        • Matsumoto T.
        • Saito Y.
        • Sato T.
        • Yamashita D.
        • Suzuki S.
        • Saito K.
        • et al.
        Validation of the domestic high bleeding risk criteria for japanese patients with acute myocardial infarction.
        J Atheroscler Thromb. 2022; https://doi.org/10.5551/jat.63576
        • Gragnano F.
        • Spirito A.
        • Corpataux N.
        • Vaisnora L.
        • Galea R.
        • Gargiulo G.
        • et al.
        Impact of clinical presentation on bleeding risk after percutaneous coronary intervention and implications for the ARC-HBR definition.
        EuroIntervention. 2021; 17: e898-e909
        • Everett C.C.
        • Fox K.A.
        • Reynolds C.
        • Fernandez C.
        • Sharples L.
        • Stocken D.D.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the impact of the GRACE risk score on the management and outcome of patients hospitalised with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome in the UK: protocol of the UKGRIS cluster-randomised registry-based trial.
        BMJ Open. 2019; 9e032165
        • Figtree G.A.
        • Vernon S.T.
        • Hadziosmanovic N.
        • Sundström J.
        • Alfredsson J.
        • Arnott C.
        • et al.
        Mortality in STEMI patients without standard modifiable risk factors: a sex-disaggregated analysis of SWEDEHEART registry data.
        Lancet. 2021; 397: 1085-1094
        • Yamamoto K.
        • Natsuaki M.
        • Morimoto T.
        • Shiomi H.
        • Takeji Y.
        • Yamaji K.
        • et al.
        Coronary artery disease without standard cardiovascular risk factors.
        Am J Cardiol. 2022; 164: 34-43
        • Hochman J.S.
        • Sleeper L.A.
        • Webb J.G.
        • Dzavik V.
        • Buller C.E.
        • Aylward P.
        • et al.
        Early revascularization and long-term survival in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction.
        JAMA. 2006; 295: 2511-2515
        • Henry T.D.
        • Tomey M.I.
        • Tamis-Holland J.E.
        • Thiele H.
        • Rao S.V.
        • Menon V.
        • et al.
        Invasive management of acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2021; 143: e815-e829
        • Nishihira K.
        • Honda S.
        • Takegami M.
        • Kojima S.
        • Asaumi Y.
        • Suzuki M.
        • et al.
        Impact of bleeding on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.
        Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care. 2021; 10: 388-396
        • Schrage B.
        • Becher P.M.
        • Bernhardt A.
        • Bezerra H.
        • Blankenberg S.
        • Brunner S.
        • et al.
        Left ventricular unloading is associated with lower mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock treated with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: results from an international, multicenter cohort study.
        Circulation. 2020; 142: 2095-2106
        • Dhruva S.S.
        • Ross J.S.
        • Mortazavi B.J.
        • Hurley N.C.
        • Krumholz H.M.
        • Curtis J.P.
        • et al.
        Association of use of an intravascular microaxial left ventricular assist device vs intra-aortic balloon pump with in-hospital mortality and major bleeding among patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.
        JAMA. 2020; 323: 734-745
        • Amin A.P.
        • Spertus J.A.
        • Curtis J.P.
        • Desai N.
        • Masoudi F.A.
        • Bach R.G.
        • et al.
        The evolving landscape of impella use in the United States among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with mechanical circulatory support.
        Circulation. 2020; 141: 273-284
        • Grandin E.W.
        • Nunez J.I.
        • Willar B.
        • Kennedy K.
        • Rycus P.
        • Tonna J.E.
        • et al.
        Mechanical left ventricular unloading in patients undergoing venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022; 79: 1239-1250
        • Naidu S.S.
        • Baran D.A.
        • Jentzer J.C.
        • Hollenberg S.M.
        • van Diepen S.
        • Basir M.B.
        • et al.
        SCAI SHOCK stage classification expert consensus update: a review and incorporation of validation studies: this statement was endorsed by the american College of Cardiology (ACC), American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP), American Heart Association (AHA), european Society of Cardiology (ESC) Association for Acute Cardiovascular Care (ACVC), International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT), Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), and Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) in december 2021.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022; 79: 933-946
        • Hashimoto O.
        • Saito Y.
        • Nakayama T.
        • Okino S.
        • Sakai Y.
        • Nakamura Y.
        • et al.
        Prognostic impact of branch vessel involvement on computed tomography versus clinical presentation of malperfusion in patients with type a acute aortic dissection.
        Am J Cardiol. 2021; 152: 158-163
        • Taguchi Y.
        • Kubo S.
        • Ikuta A.
        • Osakada K.
        • Takamatsu M.
        • Takahashi K.
        • et al.
        Percutaneous coronary intervention for left main coronary artery malperfusion in acute type a aortic dissection.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 333-342
        • Hashimoto O.
        • Saito Y.
        • Sasaki H.
        • Yumoto K.
        • Oshima S.
        • Tobaru T.
        • et al.
        Treatment strategies and in-hospital mortality in patients with type a acute aortic dissection and coronary artery involvement.
        J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2022.03.016
        • Kosugi S.
        • Shinouchi K.
        • Ueda Y.
        • Abe H.
        • Sogabe T.
        • Ishida K.
        • et al.
        Clinical and angiographic features of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and acute myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020; 76: 1934-1943
        • Lemkes J.S.
        • Janssens G.N.
        • van der Hoeven N.W.
        • Jewbali L.S.D.
        • Dubois E.A.
        • Meuwissen M.
        • et al.
        Coronary angiography after cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation.
        N Engl J Med. 2019; 380: 1397-1407
        • Desch S.
        • Freund A.
        • Akin I.
        • Behnes M.
        • Preusch M.R.
        • Zelniker T.A.
        • et al.
        Angiography after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest without ST-segment elevation.
        N Engl J Med. 2021; 385: 2544-2553
        • Hauw-Berlemont C.
        • Lamhaut L.
        • Diehl J.L.
        • Andreotti C.
        • Varenne O.
        • Leroux P.
        • et al.
        Emergency vs delayed coronary angiogram in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: results of the randomized, multicentric EMERGE trial.
        JAMA Cardiol. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1001/jamacardio.2022.1416
        • Yannopoulos D.
        • Bartos J.
        • Raveendran G.
        • Walser E.
        • Connett J.
        • Murray T.A.
        • et al.
        Advanced reperfusion strategies for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and refractory ventricular fibrillation (ARREST): a phase 2, single Centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial.
        Lancet. 2020; 396: 1807-1816
        • Thygesen K.
        • Alpert J.S.
        • Jaffe A.S.
        • Chaitman B.R.
        • Bax J.J.
        • Morrow D.A.
        • et al.
        Fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction (2018).
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018; 72: 2231-2264
        • Wereski R.
        • Kimenai D.M.
        • Bularga A.
        • Taggart C.
        • Lowe D.J.
        • Mills N.L.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for type 1 and type 2 myocardial infarction.
        Eur Heart J. 2022; 43: 127-135
        • Tamis-Holland J.E.
        • Jneid H.
        • Reynolds H.R.
        • Agewall S.
        • Brilakis E.S.
        • Brown T.M.
        • et al.
        Contemporary diagnosis and management of patients with myocardial infarction in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.
        Circulation. 2019; 139: e891-e908
        • Sandoval Y.
        • Thygesen K.
        • Jaffe A.S.
        The universal definition of myocardial infarction: present and future.
        Circulation. 2020; 141: 1434-1436
        • Lindahl B.
        • Baron T.
        • Albertucci M.
        • Prati F.
        Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary artery disease.
        EuroIntervention. 2021; 17: e875-e887
        • Dreyer R.P.
        • Tavella R.
        • Curtis J.P.
        • Wang Y.
        • Pauspathy S.
        • Messenger J.
        • et al.
        Myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries as compared with myocardial infarction and obstructive coronary disease: outcomes in a medicare population.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 870-878
        • Tateishi K.
        • Saito Y.
        • Matsuoka T.
        • Kitahara H.
        • Kobayashi Y.
        Layered coronary plaque associated with coronary vasospasm.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 389-390
        • Abdelwahed Y.S.
        • Zanders L.
        • Landmesser U.
        • Leistner D.M.
        Acute coronary syndrome by two different spontaneous coronary artery dissection types in two different vessels.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2022; 37: 393-394
        • Tateishi K.
        • Saito Y.
        • Kitahara H.
        • Shoji T.
        • Kadohira T.
        • Nakayama T.
        • et al.
        Safety and usefulness of acetylcholine provocation test in patients with no culprit lesions on emergency coronary angiography.
        Int J Cardiol. 2018; 269: 27-30
        • Suzuki S.
        • Kaikita K.
        • Yamamoto E.
        • Jinnouchi H.
        • Tsujita K.
        Role of acetylcholine spasm provocation test as a pathophysiological assessment in nonobstructive coronary artery disease.
        Cardiovasc Interv Ther. 2021; 36: 39-51
        • Reynolds H.R.
        • Maehara A.
        • Kwong R.Y.
        • Sedlak T.
        • Saw J.
        • Smilowitz N.R.
        • et al.
        Coronary optical coherence tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine underlying causes of myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries in women.
        Circulation. 2021; 143: 624-640
        • Kim E.
        Spontaneous coronary-artery dissection.
        N Engl J Med. 2020; 383: 2358-2370
        • Lobo A.S.
        • Cantu S.M.
        • Sharkey S.W.
        • Grey E.Z.
        • Storey K.
        • Witt D.
        • et al.
        Revascularization in patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019; 74: 1290-1300
        • Cerrato E.
        • Giacobbe F.
        • Quadri G.
        • Macaya F.
        • Bianco M.
        • Mori R.
        • et al.
        Antiplatelet therapy in patients with conservatively managed spontaneous coronary artery dissection from the multicentre DISCO registry.
        Eur Heart J. 2021; 42: 3161-3171
        • DeFilippis E.M.
        • Collins B.L.
        • Singh A.
        • Biery D.W.
        • Fatima A.
        • Qamar A.
        • et al.
        Women who experience a myocardial infarction at a young age have worse outcomes compared with men: the mass general brigham YOUNG-MI registry.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 4127-4137
        • Soeda T.
        • Okura H.
        • Saito Y.
        • Nakao K.
        • Ozaki Y.
        • Kimura K.
        • et al.
        Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes in patients aged 80 years or over with cardiac troponin-positive acute myocardial infarction -J-MINUET study.
        J Cardiol. 2021; 77: 139-146
        • Yokoyama H.
        • Tomita H.
        • Honda S.
        • Nishihira K.
        • Kojima S.
        • Takegami M.
        • et al.
        Effect of low body mass index on the clinical outcomes of japanese patients with acute myocardial infarction- results from the prospective Japan acute myocardial infarction registry (JAMIR).
        Circ J. 2022; 86: 632-639
        • Kaura A.
        • Sterne J.A.C.
        • Trickey A.
        • Abbott S.
        • Mulla A.
        • Glampson B.
        • et al.
        Invasive versus non-invasive management of older patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (SENIOR-NSTEMI): a cohort study based on routine clinical data.
        Lancet. 2020; 396: 623-634
        • Gimbel M.
        • Qaderdan K.
        • Willemsen L.
        • Hermanides R.
        • Bergmeijer T.
        • de Vrey E.
        • et al.
        Clopidogrel versus ticagrelor or prasugrel in patients aged 70 years or older with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (POPular AGE): the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial.
        Lancet. 2020; 395: 1374-1381
        • Szummer K.
        • Montez-Rath M.E.
        • Alfredsson J.
        • Erlinge D.
        • Lindahl B.
        • Hofmann R.
        • et al.
        Comparison between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in elderly patients with an acute coronary syndrome: insights from the SWEDEHEART registry.
        Circulation. 2020; 142: 1700-1708
        • Mentias A.
        • Desai M.Y.
        • Saad M.
        • Horwitz P.A.
        • Rossen J.D.
        • Panaich S.
        • et al.
        Incidence and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2020; 13: 938-950
        • Faroux L.
        • Lhermusier T.
        • Vincent F.
        • Nombela-Franco L.
        • Tchétché D.
        • Barbanti M.
        • et al.
        ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction following transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021; 77: 2187-2199
        • Barbanti M.
        • Costa G.
        • Picci A.
        • Criscione E.
        • Reddavid C.
        • Valvo R.
        • et al.
        Coronary cannulation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the RE-ACCESS study.
        JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2020; 13: 2542-2555
        • Bharadwaj A.
        • Potts J.
        • Mohamed M.O.
        • Parwani P.
        • Swamy P.
        • Lopez-Mattei J.C.
        • et al.
        Acute myocardial infarction treatments and outcomes in 6.5 million patients with a current or historical diagnosis of cancer in the USA.
        Eur Heart J. 2020; 41: 2183-2193
        • Matsumoto T.
        • Saito Y.
        • Yamashita D.
        • Sato T.
        • Wakabayashi S.
        • Kitahara H.
        • et al.
        Impact of active and historical cancer on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
        Am J Cardiol. 2021; 159: 59-64